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    How Much Does a Sleep Study Cost?

    It's no surprise that nightly quality sleep has amazing benefits to your physical health, mental health, and overall quality of life. How you feel during the day is often directly related to the amount and quality of sleep you get every night.

    During sleep, our minds and bodies are busy working to repair and rejuvenate our muscle tissues and bones; restore energy; regulate hormones that are key for growth and development; boost our immune systems; and store important memories.

    Many people don't get the necessary amount of sleep they need every night, preventing these important functions from occurring. Some of these people may simply need to make more time for sleep because work, social obligations, and other factors may be preventing them from getting the rest they need. However, for some other folks, a sleep disorder may be preventing them getting quality sleep at night. With approximately 50-70 million adults in the U.S. believed to be suffering from a sleep or wakefulness disorder, it's astonishing that so few people seek out treatment. Many people may not even realize they have a disorder as their symptoms occur while they're sleeping and unaware, more simply downplay the seriousness of untreated sleep disorders, and others may be completely oblivious to the consequences of untreated sleep disorders.

    If you're either unsure, unaware, or uncaring as to the consequences of your untreated sleep disorder, you might want to read a few of the reasons for getting a sleep study below before you write off your sleep health for good.

    1. Your Health is Worth a Sleep Study

    You may think that losing a few hours of sleep every night is not really a big deal, and after all, maybe you've been experiencing sleep loss for years. So what's the big deal? Well, here are just a few of the potential risks for unchecked sleep disorders:

    • Excessive daytime sleepiness

    • Stress

    • Fatigue

    • Obesity

    • High blood pressure

    • Heart disease

    • Heart attack

    • Irregular heart beat

    • Diabetes

    • Increased risk of accidents

    • Morning headaches

    And these are just some of the risks to your physical health. There are many consequences to your mental health and general well-being as well. These include:

    • Irritability

    • Anxiety

    • Mood swings

    • Difficulty concentrating

    • Cognitive impairment

    • Decreased sex drive

    • Poor work performance

      Not to mention that being tired all the time means you're spending less quality with your friends and family as you just don't have the energy to participate in certain activities. While some people may not be so concerned about their own health, most people wouldn't risk the health of their loved ones. This brings us to reason number two...

    2. Your Sleep Disorder Can Impact Your Bed-partner's Health

    As mentioned before, many sleep disorders go unnoticed by the sufferers themselves. Many people don't really experience the negative aspects of their sleep habits while sleeping, and may only recognize the symptoms they experience during the day such as fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness. Oftentimes, it's the sufferer's bed-partner who brings up the disorder because it's been keeping them awake at night. Some of the most common sleep disorders that impact your bed-partner's quality of sleep are:

    • Obstructive sleep apnea. Patient's suffering from obstructive sleep apnea often snore very loudly, which can disturb their partner's sleep. Also the cessations in breathing can cause partners a lot of worry as there's a very legitimate fear that their loved ones may stop breathing in the night altogether.

    • Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD). These two movement disorders can cause the sufferer to be continuously moving their legs in bed; either voluntarily before sleep to relieve uncomfortable sensations(RLS), or involuntarily during sleep (PLMD). Both of these disorders cause body movements, which may either wake your partner from sleep or prevent them from going to sleep.

    • Bruxism. This sleep disorder is characterized by clenching one's jaw tightly during sleep and often grinding the teeth together. The teeth grinding is often loud and disturbing to other's sleep.

    • Other parasomnias. There are many other sleep disorders that can arouse or prevent your partner from sleep. These can include sleep walking, REM sleep behavior disorder, sleep talking (somniloquy), night terrors, and more.

    If your sleep disorder is preventing your partner from getting quality sleep at night, it's very likely they will display symptoms of sleep deprivation and find themselves at risk for many of the symptoms listed above. So it's not just your health at stake by keeping from getting your disorder checked out, it's your loved one's as well.

    3. A Sleep Study is Worth the Cost

    One of the most common reasons for leaving sleep disorders untreated is because of high medical costs. And yes, sleep studies can be pretty pricey. However, most insurance companies recognize the health issues associated with unchecked sleep disorders and may very well have fair coverage costs. Make sure to check with your insurance company to see what type of coverage they offer for a sleep study. You may be surprised to find out just how affordable it might be.

    Depending on the type of sleep disorder you have, you may find affordable alternatives to an inlab sleep study (polysomnogram), such as a home sleep test, which is about a third of the cost.

    For a typical breakdown of the cost of a sleep study click here.

    In all honesty, there are many reasons to have a sleep study done, especially if you or your loved ones are suffering as a result. Treatments for sleep disorders have a high rate of success for patients willing to take the leap in getting diagnosed. Within a short time of getting treatment, many patients find themselves feeling more alert and invigorated during the day and report an amazing change in the quality of their life.

    The Alaska Sleep Clinic specializes in diagnosing and treating a variety of sleep disorders. If you live in Alaska and are ready to get your sleep disorder under control, sign up for a sleep study today by contacting us and taking the first step towards more fulfilling sleep.

    Link to original article here.

    Being Sleepy During the Day Could Be a Warning Sign of Alzheimer's

    Researchers know that a condition as complicated as Alzheimer’s can’t be traced to a single or simple cause. Genetic factors contribute to the degenerative brain disorder that robs people of their memory, and biological process related to aging play a role as well.

    But in recent years, scientists have uncovered some behaviors that may also influence Alzheimer’s risk. In the latest study published in JAMA Neurology, a group of them report how sleep — daytime sleepiness, in particular — may be an indicator of Alzheimer’s.

    Prashanthi Vemuri, an associate professor of radiology at the Mayo Clinic, and her colleagues wanted to address a puzzling problem in the field. Studies showed that people with Alzheimer’s disease tend to have disrupted sleep, which made sense: biological studies have recently revealed that while the brain sleeps, it clears away deposits of amyloid, the protein that builds up and eventually strangles nerve cells in Alzheimer’s disease. But it wasn’t clear whether the amyloid plaque deposits led to the disrupted sleep, or whether changes in sleep habits contributed to the buildup of the protein.

    To find out, Vemuri and her team took advantage of a long-running study of nearly 3,000 older people in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, all of whom were recruited from Olmsted County, Minn. For the study, Vemuri selected 283 people without dementia who were over 70, who answered questions about their sleep habits and agreed to have several brain scans for amyloid over the seven-year study period.

    Among the people in the study, 22% reported problems with daytime sleepiness, a sign of disordered sleep. When Vemuri compared the brain scans of all of the volunteers from the start of the study to the end, she found that people who reported excessive daytime sleepiness at the start of the study were more likely to show increases in amyloid in their brains as the study progressed. These people also tended to show faster deposition of the protein than those who did not report daytime drowsiness. What’s more, the amyloid was heaviest in two regions of the brain: the anterior cingulate and cingulate precuneus, which typically show high levels of amyloid in people with Alzheimer’s.

    “We found that daytime sleepiness was causing more deposition of amyloid in people who are already amyloid positive, so it was influencing the rate of deposition over time,” says Vemuri.

    While the study went to great lengths to try to track how amyloid levels in the brain change over time in people with and without daytime sleepiness, it still does not provide a definitive answer about whether sleep disruptions contribute to amyloid buildup or whether sleep problems emerge as amyloid starts to pile up. But the findings reinforce the importance of good sleep in keeping the brain healthy.

    “I would hope that people understand that good sleep habits are important to have a healthy brain, since it can prevent amyloid, which is one of the primary proteins underlying Alzheimer’s disease,” says Vemuri.

    Researchers are already studying whether improving people’s sleep habits might have an impact on amyloid buildup. But they realize these studies need to begin when people are in their 40s and 50s, since the buildup of amyloid begins at least a decade, if not more, before cognitive symptoms start to become obvious. That means that if sleep is going to be one way to delay or even prevent Alzheimer’s, people will need to get in the habit of getting a good night’s sleep as early and as often as possible.

    Game Changing Information in the Field of Obstructive Sleep Apnea


    1) CPAP for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    N Engl J Med 2016; 375:919-931

    Therapy with CPAP plus usual care, as compared with usual care alone, did not prevent cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and established cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others; SAVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00738179; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12608000409370.)


    Review Article
    Journal of Sleep Medicine & Disorders

    2) Arterial Stiffness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    Thomas Balanis* and Bernd Sanner
    Department of Medicine, Agaplesion Bethesda Krankenhaus Wuppertal, Germany

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a very common disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiac arrhythmia, and stroke. Arterial stiffness is an emerging risk factor and may be involved in the cardiovascular complications of obstructive sleep apnea. The purpose of this review was to demonstrate the correlation between arterial stiffness and obstructive sleep apnea. Arterial stiffness was increased in obstructive sleep apnea patients compared to controls or increased in severe compared to mild sleep apnea. Although there are relatively few interventional studies that have incorporated a control group, there are two randomized trials showing short-term improvements in arterial stiffness with CPAP treatment. Obstructive sleep apnea seems to play an essential role in arterial stiffness, which may be one of the mechanisms accounting for sleep apnea-associated cardiovascular risk. Therefore, arterial stiffness may have a role in the increased risk of cardiovascular complications in OSA. Although there are relatively few interventional studies that have incorporated a control group, there are two randomized trials showing short-term improvements in arterial stiffness with CPAP treatment.


    3) http://www.cbass.com/IntervalsArterialStiffness.htm

    Interval Training Reduces Arterial Stiffness
    To recap briefly, continuous and interval training reduced blood pressure about the same, but only intervals significantly improved arterial stiffness. Add that intervals improve fitness in less time and are more appealing, and it’s a slam dunk for intervals.

    4) Effects of Exercise Modalities on Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    Ammar W. Ashor,1,2,* Jose Lara,1 Mario Siervo,1 Carlos Celis-Morales,1 and John C. Mathers1; Yan Li, Editor
    (This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.)

    Background and Objectives
    Physical activity is associated with lower cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. However, the effects of different exercise modalities on arterial stiffness are currently unclear. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of exercise modalities (aerobic, resistance or combined) on pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), and to determine whether the effects on these indices differed according to the participants' or exercise characteristics.

    We searched the Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases from inception until April 2014 for randomized controlled trials lasting ≥4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise modalities on PWV and AIx in adults aged ≥18 years.

    Forty-two studies (1627 participants) were included in this analysis. Aerobic exercise improved both PWV (WMD: −0.63 m/s, 95% CI: −0.90, −0.35) and AIx (WMD:−2.63%, 95% CI: −5.25 to −0.02) significantly. Aerobic exercise training showed significantly greater reduction in brachial-ankle (WMD: −1.01 m/s, 95% CI: −1.57, −0.44) than in carotid-femoral (WMD: -0.39 m/s, 95% CI: −0.52, −0.27) PWV. Higher aerobic exercise intensity was associated with larger reductions in AIx (β: −1.55%, CI −3.09, 0.0001). In addition, aerobic exercise had a significantly larger effect in reducing PWV (WMD:−1.0 m/s, 95% CI: −1.43, −0.57) in participants with stiffer arteries (PWV ≥8 m/s). Resistance exercise had no effect on PWV and AIx. There was no significant effect of combined exercise on PWV and AIx.

    We conclude that aerobic exercise improved arterial stiffness significantly and that the effect was enhanced with higher aerobic exercise intensity and in participants with greater arterial stiffness at baseline.

    5) Hypertension Research (2010) 33, 627–632; doi:10.1038/hr.2010.42; published online 9 April 2010

    Effects of continuous vs. interval exercise training on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in treated hypertension

    Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension and arterial stiffness, but little is known about which exercise modality is the most effective in reducing arterial stiffness and blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of continuous vs. interval exercise training on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Sixty-five patients with hypertension were randomized to 16 weeks of continuous exercise training (n=26), interval training (n=26) or a sedentary routine (n=13). The training was conducted in two 40-min sessions a week. Assessment of arterial stiffness by carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were performed before and after the 16 weeks of training. At the end of the study, ABPM blood pressure had declined significantly only in the subjects with higher basal values and was independent of training modality. PWV had declined significantly only after interval training from 9.44±0.91 to 8.90±0.96 m s−1, P=0.009 (continuous from 10.15±1.66 to 9.98±1.81 m s−1, P=ns; control from 10.23±1.82 to 10.53±1.97 m s−1, P=ns). Continuous and interval exercise training were beneficial for blood pressure control, but only interval training reduced arterial stiffness in treated hypertensive subjects.


    6) Association of pulse wave velocity with total lung capacity: A cross-sectional analysis of the BOLD London study André F.S. Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK Highlights

      - TLC is inversely associated with pulse wave velocity (i.e. arterial stiffness).
      - FVC, which is a proxy for TLC, is also inversely associated with pulse wave velocity.
      - Systolic blood pressure is inversely associated with FEV1.

    Low lung function, measured using spirometry, has been associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease, but whether this is explained by airflow obstruction or restriction is a question that remains unanswered.

    The inverse association of pulse wave velocity, which is a marker of cardiovascular disease, with TLC suggests that the association of the former with low FVC is independent of airflow obstruction. The association between FEV1 with systolic blood pressure after adjustment for FVC suggests an association with airflow obstruction rather than with restricted spirometry. The upshot of these two pivotal papers in thoracic medicine is that while CPAP cannot prevent the cardiovascular & and cardio – cerebral complications of OSA, the PFT lab provides us all with readily available therapeutic targets to assess and help us decrease arterial stiffness, a major pathophysiology in OSA and one that can be treated with interval training, medication, or both. This is crucial for our patients.